Monthly Archives: December 2016


ISRO has impressed with now for policy innovation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) accomplished a major feat last week by launching 104 satellites at one go, breaking the record held by Russia (37 satellites) and the earlier US record (29). Launching dozens of satellites in different orbital slots is an extremely complex manoeuvre. India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), the tried and tested workhorse of Isro, proved yet again that it can achieve more complex missions. Despite this impressive achievement, some international reports tried to underplay it by saying that these were simply nano satellites. Inserting multiple satellites in space is significant irrespective of the weight.

The PSLV has become Isro’s backbone for several important and impressive missions, including the Mars mission in 2013. The fact that India became the first Asian country to do this and that it accomplished the Mars mission in the first attempt is also no small feat. Several countries including China, supposedly more advanced, had attempted the Mars mission in the past but failed. While India need not make a show of its growing capabilities, it clearly reveals that even more advanced powers have failed in such missions due to the complexities involved. Isro’s achievements are also noteworthy given that it works on a shoestring budget.

Isro’s missions have far-reaching impact both from a commercial as well as national security perspective. India has been known for its affordable yet credible missions in the global space industry for long, but it is these recent missions that illustrate what it can deliver. For one, these missions increase India’s attractiveness as a partner in the commercial sector for satellite launches. Two, they also strengthen India’s credentials in global governance. Its ability to sit at the high table gets a fillip through such missions.

India has every reason to be proud of its achievements, but there are still certain aspects of its space programme that need more attention. The need for a holistic space policy cannot be underestimated. Isro has issued a couple of sector-specific policies such as for remote-sensing and Satcom (satellite communication), but it is time that India put in place a policy that is all-encompassing and issued from a central agency rather than India’s civil space agency. This becomes particularly pertinent against the backdrop of numerous requirements, both in the civilian and national security domain. Traditionally, India believed in using space assets for economic and developmental applications but India can no longer ignore security-related needs against the backdrop of regional and global developments. Technology demonstration has also remained an imperative. India’s Insat, Indian remote sensing (IRS) satellites, Cartosat and Resourcesat series are good examples of technology demonstration that evolved into significantly meeting socio-economic and developmental needs.

In this regard, India cannot develop separate policies for remote sensing or satellite communication or space security. The fact is that India’s space programme has grown enormously and cannot be compartmentalized into remote-sensing or communications or defence applications. India’s space programme today envelops all the different dimensions, including space security and developmental and economic needs, and, therefore, the policy that India will eventually develop should deal with each of these elements.

While there has been some recognition of the need for a space policy, this has not translated into any concrete measure. Also, the space policy must not be developed in a vacuum–it needs to be a by-product of a calibrated approach on the kind of future warfare India is likely to fight and accordingly, decide on the course of technologies and capabilities, rather than do this in an unplanned style. It will be ideal if there is a national security strategy that is driving India’s broad ambitions on where it wants to go by 2030, for instance, and then have a clear requirement-based perspective. In the absence of that clarity, the scientific and technical bureaucracy will develop a perspective that is almost entirely technology-driven, minus a strategic interface. Also, outer space has been left in the hands of the scientific bureaucracy for too long. The political leadership has to take ownership of this domain and dictate what is necessary from a national strategic perspective.

Given the growing requirements, India must tackle one other important dimension: commercialization and increasing private sector participation. While Isro has accomplished a great deal, and is one of the public enterprises that has done India proud, it cannot deliver on the multitude of requirements that India has. India has a sizeable and talented private sector that must be brought in to maximize the capacity to manufacture as well as launch satellites. Isro might need to do a bit of handholding in the beginning but with a little help, the Indian private sector can contribute to India’s space growth story in an effective manner.

Lastly, the current momentum towards developing global norms for outer space activities should be considered as India contemplates its space policy. Globally speaking, space debris, potential weaponization of space, cyber arms race in outer space, and anti-satellite (Asat) weapons are becoming major challenges, pushing states to write new rules of the road. India, being an established space player, should play an active role in shaping these and not lose the opportunity. However, these challenges do not belong to one single basket or the other, which dictate a considered policy approach from India. In addition, India should also be mindful of efforts by big powers to shape an NPT-like (NPT is the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons) instrument for the space domain that may, for instance, declare a ban on Asat testing. Asat capability can be demonstrated in a responsible manner, creating the least amount of debris and in an orbit that is least damaging. India’s demonstration of an Asat capability would have both a political and strategic impact in terms of deterrence. India should pay heed to the evolving challenges and opportunities in outer space to stay atop.


Review of Xiaomi Redmi Note 4

Once again Xiaomi took the Indian market by storm with the launch of Xiaomi Redmi Note 4 on January 19. Xiaomi is selling three variants of the Redmi Note 4 in India: the base model has 2GB of RAM and 32GB storage for just Rs. 9,999, then there’s a variant with 3GB of RAM and 32GB storage for Rs. 10,999, and the top model is the one with 4GB of RAM and 64GB storage, which is priced Rs. 12,999. We have received the top variant of the Xiaomi Redmi Note 4 for a review.

The Redmi Note 4 comes with a premium metal unibody finish. It has a solid build and feels good when you hold it. Compared to Redmi Note 3, both the device look exactly same, with slightly different curves and flat edges. Despite the flat edges, the corners don’t feel sharp in the hand. At 165g, the device feels lighter than many other 5.5-inch smartphones in this range. The phone adds a decent thickness to it. In my case, the slightly curved back and a texture make the device less slippery and comfortable to hold with one hand.

On the back, the rear camera module is located in the top center of the device, with the dual tone flash placed horizontally below it followed by the fingerprint scanner. On the bottom end of the back, you will find the Mi logo and an antenna strip. The speaker grill moved towards the bottom of the device beside microUSB slot.

Unlike the back, the front bears a very minimalistic look. A bigger 5.5-inch full HD (1920×1080 pixels) display sits in the middle and the three backlit touch capacitive buttons below it. Above the display, there is a speaker grill along with the front camera, ambient light, proximity sensors and the notification RGB LED. The Silver and the Gold color variants have the matching colored front which might be a distraction to you (atleast that distracts me), I would suggest opting for the Dark Grey color variant which has an all-black front.


The Redmi Note 4 has an excellent spec for a phone of its price and screen size. It is equipped with Qualcomm Snapdragon 625 processor and 4GB of RAM, the device was able to handle most of the task and games with a breeze. Daily tasks never show any hiccups, including multitasking. The overall performance felt close to a premium device and the processor, which is a 64-bit chip from Qualcomm proved to be quite good. There is no stutter in the UI anywhere, no frame drops, no jerking: it just works and continues working even with 40 apps installed. 3D games run very well too, we didn’t notice any performance or major heating issues when playing games such as Real Racing 3 and Modern Combat 4.


The device runs on MIUI 8, the latest version of Xiaomi’s operating system based on Android 6.0.1 Marshmallow, although an update to Android 7.0 Nougat is currently in the works and available in beta version. There’s Dual Apps feature available, which lets you run two instances of the same apps. This means it allow you to run two WhatsApp or Twitter accounts on the same phone, which is not otherwise possible.

Call quality and network connectivity are flawless on the device and even the loudspeaker is pretty decent. It also supports all 4G networks in India. Despite the decent slim profile, the Redmi Note 4 packs in a 4,100 mAh battery, which can last a whole day on single charge.


The phone’s 13-megapixel BSI CMOS camera is quick and delivers clear and crisp shots in most conditions. In outdoor shots, colors look accurate and the image doesn’t lose its crispness while zooming or viewed on a bigger screen. Even in low-light shots, colors look good and the amount of blur is minimal. Overall, it is an impressive camera with plenty of filters and camera modes such as time lapse, beauty and mode. The 5-megapixel front camera takes decent selfies, mostly impresses with its clarity and color reproduction. The images recognition function works fine and it also predicts the age of the person which is a nice addition. The low light performance of the smartphone is good but needs a little improvement on sensors.

RATINGS: 90/100
PRICED: ₹ 12,999/-


The Reasons Number Of Firms Purchase Graphene

So, in this relate, Scientists have the expertise to make graphene from distinct materials like chocolate, grass, polystyrene plastic, and insects. It includes so many amazing characteristics. It’s actually 100 times sturdy when compared to strongest steel. So it’s one of the major causes to get graphene.

How to Purchase graphene via online?

Now a day, graphene has attained so much popularity, and this is due to that it is utilized in almost all firms and in almost all the sectors. So, you can get a number of online vendors that trade this item at cost effective fares. If you are thinking to purchase graphene, then you need to do some search correctly by visiting all the online stores that are obtainable on the web.

Prior selecting the specific vendor you got to evaluate whether they provider quality items at affordable fares. Then purchase graphene with the one which is perfect for your requirements as well as budget.

Fascinating applications of Graphene that you must know about

The following are the excellent uses of graphene:

Photovoltaic cells –

Graphene can be utilized as a replace for silicon in the photovoltaic cells production. Silicon is utilized hugely in the production of photovoltaic cells, however the silicon cells are very costly to manufactures, but whereas the graphene cells are likely much less costly.

Ultra filtration –

Graphene can be utilized as an ultra filtration medium to function as a barrier amidst the two substances due to it lets the water to pass via it and it is fully water resistant to gases as well as liquid.

Biological engineering –

A graphene offers high electrical conductivity, strength and thinness which make the scientist to build a fast as well as effective bioelectric sensory gadgets with the ability to handle the stuffs such as cholesterol, hemoglobin levels, glucose and along in DNA sequencing. Thus graphene vendors have so much necessity in the sector of biological.

Optical electronics –

These materials are utilized in the applications of optoelectronic due to it has the ability to send the light and it is fully transparent substance so it can be utilized in desktop, smart phone, television and so on.


Buy Carbon Nanotubes In Online

By considering the potential applications of carbon nanotubes, it pretty certain to know the big companies that are involved in the production of the capacitors, batteries and electronics which have invested so much on its production.

Buy carbon nanotubes online in a hassle free manner

The selling of carbon nanotubes is gaining huge popularity as nanotechnology has really proved its worth in the nano market. The movement of protons and electrons is pretty much necessary for the electricity passage. The net type of structure and the molecular formation is the major reason behind the carbon nanotubes success. The sale of carbon nanotubes is very high particularly in the wire manufacturing companies as they have started making use of this system in the current days.

The nano tubes of carbon are well known and they are hugely sought in the field. Many industries purchase carbon nanotubes because of its excellent characteristics they posses. As a matter of fact, carbon nanotubes comprise of graphene. In fact, it is one amongst the sturdy surfaces that is available in the market. In fact, they are much stronger than diamond. For this reason, carbon nanotubes are highly strong.

Besides, amazing mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, even its electrical and thermal properties are excellent. Its capacity to conduct electricity is fine that copper. These tubes provide less resistance to the flow of electricity. Therefore the capacitors manufactured out of it are more powerful and efficient.

Likewise, there are plenty of reasons can be attributed in the favor to buy carbon nanotubes. Aforementioned are some of them.

Reasons to buy carbon nanotubes through online medium

In this digital era, you can come across a number of online vendors who are waiting to trade carbon nanotubes in distinct grades. Before you buy carbon nanotubes, you should thoroughly know about the size and shape of carbon nanotubes as it varies easily.

When we consider the size and shape of the CNT’s, it usually refers to its diameters. All those who are not aware about the mechanical, electrical, chemical and thermal properties of the carbon nanotubes can modify it as per their requirement. For this particular reason, before placing order you need to be very certain about your requirements.